(Syllabus) Maharashtra PSC: Agriculture : Revised Syllabus for State Services (Main) Examination (Optional)

Maharashtra PSC: Agriculture : Revised Syllabus for State Services (Main) Examination (Optional)

Agriculture (Code No : 101) Paper – I
Standard : Degree in Agriculture

Total Marks : 200
Nature of Paper :
Conventional Type
Duration : 3 Hours

Note :
1) Answers to this paper must be written in English only.
2) This paper will test the candidate’s ability to comprehend, to analyse, to interpret, to criticise and to appraise subject matter related to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.
3) It is expected from candidates to study the latest and recent developments and happenings pertaining to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.
 

Section - A ( Marks : 50 ) Agronomy
1) Ecology :

1) Ecology and its relevance to natural resources in India in general and Maharashtra in particular, with special reference to agriculture.
2) Agro moterology – types of climate and their methods of classification
3) Effect of climatic factors on crop growth.
4) Drought – classification and factors of drought tolerance in plants.
5) Eco-system, Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crop plants.

2) Cropping Patterns :
1) Cropping patterns in relation to Agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra
2) Concept of multiple cropping, multistory, relay, inter cropping and mixed cropping and their importance in crop production and resource management.
3) Organic Farming – Concept, Permaculture, Regenerative agriculture, Prospects and Limitations.
4) Package of practices of important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibers, sugarcane, and fodder crops grown during kharif and rabi seasons in Maharashtra.
5) Weeds associated with various crops and their integrated management.

3) Tillage :
1) Tillage and its objective and factors affecting it.
2) Tillage implements and its relevance for good tillage and plant growth.
3) Modern concept of tillage.
 

Section – B ( Marks : 50 ) Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science
4) Soil :

1) Processes and factors of soil formation.
2) Classification of soil including modern concepts.
3) Physical, chemical and biological properties of soil (texture, structure, soil reaction and pH, soil air and soil temperature etc.).
4) Soil Survey and Land capability classification.
5) Soils of Maharashtra.
6) Soil fertility management in relation to sustainability of productivity.

5) Soil and Water Conservation :
1) Soil conservation, planning on watershed basis.
2) Erosion and run-off management in hilly, foothills and valley lands.
3) Dry land agriculture and its problem, stabilization of productivity in dry land agriculture.
4) Problem soils and their reclamation methods.

6) Essential Nutrients in Plants :
1) Essential plant nutrients criteria, classification, functions, deficiency symptoms and corrective measures.
2) Organic manures, inorganic fertilizers, bio-fertilizers and methods of application.
3) Fertigation, slow release fertilizers and fertilizer use efficiency.
4) Integrated plant nutrient management (IPNM) in relation to sustainable agriculture.


Section – C ( Marks : 50 ) Agricultural Engineering
7) Water Management :

1) Soil water constant and water requirement.
2) Water use efficiency in crop production.
3) Criteria for scheduling irrigation.
4) Drip and sprinkler irrigation.
5) Quality of irrigation water.
6) Type of drainage for water logged soil, effect of drainage on soil improvement and crop growth.
7) Effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution.

8) Farm Machinery and Power : Conventional and Non-conventional sources of farm power, farm machinery and farm implements.

9) Agricultural Process Engineering :
1) Concept of value addition and scope, utilisation of byproduct.
2) Post-harvest processing techniques and equipments, status of Agro-industries in Maharashtra.
 

Section – D ( Marks : 50 ) Horticulture
10) Horticulture :

1) Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruit crops, vegetable crops and flower plants, package of practices.
2) Scope of fruits, vegetables and flowers for domestic and export market.
3) Important Milestones and present status in fruits, vegetables and floriculture in Maharashtra.
4) Principle methods of preservation of important fruits and vegetable products.
5) Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.
6) Production of mushroom.
7) Design, layout of gardens and land scaping.
8) Hi-tech floriculture (Green House and Poly House technology).
9) Importance and scope of dry land horticulture and crops suitable for dry land and rain fed conditions.

11) Medicinal and Aromatic plants : Importance and scope of medicinal and aromatic plants, its cultivation, processing and present status in Maharashtra.

12) Forestry :  Types of Forestry, Social and Agro- forestry, their importance, scope and relevance to the need of rural community, multipurpose tree species, Apiculture and Sericulture.


Paper - II
Standard : Degree in Agriculture

Total Marks : 200
Nature of Paper : Conventional Type
Duration : 3 Hours

Note :
1) Answers to this paper must be written in English only.
2) This paper will test the candidate’s ability to comprehend, to analyse, to interpret, to criticise and to appraise subject matter related to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.
3) It is expected from candidates to study the latest and recent developments and happenings pertaining to the topics/sub topics mentioned below.
 

Section - A ( Marks : 50 ) Agricultural Botany
1) Cell Biology :

1) Cell Structures and organelles.
2) Cell division – Mitosis and Meiosis.
3) Nucleic acids.
    a) Structure and functions.
    b) Gene structure and functions.

2) Genetics :
1) Laws of heredity, their significance in plant breeding.
2) Linkage and crossing over and its significance in recombination breeding.
3) Variations – Component of variation, polyploidy, euploid and aneuploids, Mutations and mutgens.

3) Plant breeding :
    1) Mode of reproduction – Selfing and crossing techniques.
    2) Sterility and incompatibility and its role in crop improvement.
    3) Crop genetic resources, conservation and utilization.
    4) Breeding Methods.
        a) Selection (mass selection, pure line selection, pedigree selection and recurrent selection).
        b) Hybridization.

(1) Combining ability and its significance in plant breeding.
(2) Hybrid vigour and its exploitation.
(3) Back cross method of breeding.
(4) Breeding for disease and pest resistance.
(5) Role of inter-specific and inter generic hybridization.
(6) Improved varieties, hybrids composites of various crop plants.

4) Seed Technology :
1) Seed technology and its importance.
2) Different types of seeds and their production and processing techniques.
3) Role of public and private sector in seed industry.
4) Seed Acts, seed testing and seed certification.

5) Physiology :
1) Photosynthesis and its Mechanism.
2) C3, C4 and Crasulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants.
3) Aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

6) Growth and Development of Plants :
1) Plant growth regulators – Phytoharmones, their mechanism of action and importance in agriculture.
2) Seed germination and dormancy.
 

Section - B ( Marks : 50 ) Plant Pathology, Entomology and Nematology
7) Plant Pathology :
    1) Plant diseases and their Classification.
    2) Plant diseases of major crops of Maharashtra.
    3) Epidemiology and forecasting of diseases.
    4) Principles of Plant disease management.
    5) Plant protection equipments and maintenance.
    6) Integrated disease management ( IDM).
    7) Biological control of diseases.

8) Entomology :
    1) Classification of insect and pests of agriculture importance.
    2) Major insect pests of major crops of Maharashtra and losses cause of by them.
    3) Biological control of insect pests, scope and limitation.
    4) Storage insect pests of cereals and pulses and their management.
    5) Integrated pests management (IPM).

9) Nematology : Plant parasitic nematods of major crops of Maharashtra infestation and their management.

10) Pesticides : Pesticides and bio-pesticides, their formulations, compatibility and mode of action, microbial toxins.


Section - C ( Marks : 50 )
11) Food Policy and Standards :
    1) Food production and consumption trends in Maharashtra.
    2) National and International food policies.
    3) Production, procurement, distribution, storage and processing of farm products.
    4) Relation of food production and national dietary pattern.
    5) Major deficiencies of calorie and protein – malnutrition problems in Maharashtra.

12) Livestock production and management :
    1) Live stock production of cattle, goat, sheep, poultry and pig in Maharashtra.
    2) Live stock breeds and their characteristics, Breeding and management of dairy animals.
    3) Animal nutrition – Chemical compositions of animal feed, digestion, absortion and metabolization of food, nutritive evaluation of feed.

13) Biotechnology :
a) Tissue culture and its application in agriculture.
b) Recombinant DNA technology.
c) Transgenic plants for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.
d) Biotechnology and its application in food processing, alcoholic beverages, biogas, bio-fertilizers, Animal and human health.

14) Remote sensing and its application in agriculture and natural resource management.


Section - D ( Marks : 50 ) Agricultural Economics and Extension
15) Agricultural Economics :
    1) Farm management, and importance.
    2) Farm planning and budgeting.
    3) Types and systems of farming and factors affecting them.
    4) Agricultural marketing and its institutes, pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs.
    5) Problems in the marketing and measures to overcome.
    6) Agricultural price policy, objectives of price policy, price stabilization and price support policy of government to agricultural produce.
    7) Agricultural finance institutes and role in agricultural economy.
    8) Government agricultural credit policy, credit institutes, problems thereof.
    9) Government economic policy, World Trade Organization (WTO)- present provisions and its impact on agricultural production, growth and trade. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and Petents.
    10) Agricultural business management.
    11) Cooperation : Meaning, Principles and importance of cooperation, Types of cooperative institutes and their role in agriculture development, cooperative movement in Maharashtra.

16) Extension :
    1) Agricultural extension, its importance and role.
    2) Methods of evaluation of extension programme.
    3) Socioeconomic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labours.
    4) Communication
        a) Importance of audiovisual aids in extension education.
        b) Mass media and their importance in extension education.
        c) KVK and its role in agricultural promotion and development.
        d) Single window system organization.
    5) Lab to land programme, TAR, IVLP, ATMA & Kisan Call Centre.
    6) Integrated rural development programme.
    7) Role of public and private agencies in agricultural extension.
    8) Information Technology, its utility and role in agricultural extension and development.
    9) Agri – Clinics: concept, need and prospects.



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